[34] The globalization by successive European colonial empires spread European ways of life and European educational methods around the world between the 16th and 20th centuries. By extension, those countries where Western Europe established its hegemony and inherited its languages, socio-political system of organization, religion are considered part of Western culture or Westernized countries , law system, educational model, values ​​and customs. Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western world, where 70% are Christians.[96]. So were the stethoscope, the electrocardiograph, and the endoscope. A wide range of sports was already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sports in Greece influenced one another considerably. Define Western culture by Webster's Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing, Legal Dictionary, Medical Dictionary, Dream Dictionary. All these notions are now under revision and discussion, especially since the processes began of decolonization of the world. The soap opera, a popular culture dramatic form, originated in the United States first on radio in the 1930s, then a couple of decades later on television. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political, artistic, and philosophical principles that set it apart from other civilizations. "The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century,". [b] The term Middle East in the mid-19th century included the territory east of the Ottoman Empire, but West of China—Greater Persia and Greater India—is now used synonymously with "Near East" in most languages. The Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the 18th Century brought increased leisure time, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility. While epic literary works in verse such as the Mahabharata and Homer's Iliad are ancient and occurred worldwide, the prose novel as a distinct form of storytelling, with developed, consistent human characters and, typically, some connected overall plot (although both of these characteristics have sometimes been modified and played with in later times), was popularized by the West[106] in the 17th and 18th centuries. Classical Greek learning was also subsumed, preserved, and elaborated in the rising Eastern world, which gradually supplanted Roman-Byzantine control as a dominant cultural-political force. [57] Joseph Schumpeter, an economist of the twentieth century, referring to the Scholastics, wrote, "it is they who come nearer than does any other group to having been the 'founders' of scientific economics."[30]. The most important Hellenistic centre of learning was Ptolemaic Egypt, which attracted Greek, Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Phoenician and even Indian scholars. The First Industrial Revolution evolved into the Second Industrial Revolution in the transition years between 1840 and 1870, when technological and economic progress continued with the increasing adoption of steam transport (steam-powered railways, boats, and ships), the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the increasing use of machinery in steam-powered factories. [93][94], In the 20th century, Christianity declined in influence in many Western countries, mostly in the European Union where some member states have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years,[95] and also elsewhere. [citation needed] European culture developed with a complex range of philosophy, medieval scholasticism, mysticism and Christian and secular humanism. [42] Contemporary Latin chronicles from Spain described the victors in the Frankish victory over the Umayyads at the Battle of Tours as Europeans according to Appiah, denoting a shared sense of identity.[42]. As religion became less important, and Europeans came into increasing contact with far away peoples, the old concept of Western culture began a slow evolution towards what it is today. Much of this set of traditions is collected in the Western canon. Since the context is highly biased and context-dependent, there is no agreed definition of what the "West" is. Scholars have proposed a wide variety of theories to explain why the Great Divergence happened, including lack of government intervention, geography, colonialism, and customary traditions. Volleyball was created in Holyoke, Massachusetts, a city directly north of Springfield, in 1895. [123], Communication devices and systems including the telegraph, the telephone, radio, television, communications and navigation satellites, mobile phone, and the Internet were all invented by Westerners. [102] The ballroom dance is an important Western variety of dance for the elite. The West invented cinema, television, the personal computer and the Internet; produced artists such as Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Bach, and Mozart; developed sports such as soccer, cricket, golf, tennis, rugby, basketball, and volleyball; and transported humans to an astronomical object for the first time with the 1969 Apollo 11 Moon Landing. [101] In art, the Celtic knot is a very distinctive Western repeated motif. [44][45] Ancient Egypt similarly had a strong influence on Western culture. to 1950, Paperback – 9 November 2004, p. 252, Tom McInally, The Sixth Scottish University. During the Reformation and Enlightenment, the ideas of civil rights, equality before the law, procedural justice, and democracy as the ideal form of society began to be institutionalized as principles forming the basis of modern Western culture, particularly in Protestant regions. Islam has protected other religions and avoided fascism, racism, and genocide. [144][145], In business, economics, and finance, double entry bookkeeping, credit cards, and the charge card were all first used in the West. The sport of bullfighting is a traditional spectacle of Spain, Portugal, southern France, and some Latin American countries. [43] Thus the Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895 occurred in the Far East while the troubles surrounding the decline of the Ottoman Empire simultaneously occurred in the Near East. Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a Frenchman, instigated the modern revival of the Olympic movement. From Late Antiquity, through the Middle Ages, and onwards, while Eastern Europe was shaped by the Orthodox Church, Southern and Central Europe were increasingly stabilized by the Catholic Church which, as Roman imperial governance faded from view, was the only consistent force in Western Europe. Christian attempts to reconcile these frameworks were responsible for the preservation of Greek philosophy. The eradication of smallpox, was led by a Westerner, Donald Henderson. Its widely used language is English. Departing from media offered in bundled content packages (magazines, CDs, television and radio slots), the Internet has primarily offered unbundled content items (articles, audio and video files).[158]. [172] And 73% in Oceania are self-identify as Christian, and 76% in South Africa is Christian. The western civilization has really colonized other parts of the world, meaning that most people are emulating the western culture. Thus, much of the learning of classical antiquity was slowly reintroduced to European civilization in the centuries following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined. [148][149] The landing of robots on Mars (2004 and 2012) and on an asteroid (2001), the Voyager 2 explorations of the outer planets (Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989), Voyager 1's passage into interstellar space (2013), and New Horizons' flyby of Pluto (2015) were significant recent Western achievements. Eyeglasses, the telescope, the microscope and electron microscope, all the varieties of chromatography, protein and DNA sequencing, computerised tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-rays, and light, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, were all first developed and applied in Western laboratories, hospitals and factories. [132][133][134][135][136], Ubiquitous materials including aluminum, clear glass, synthetic rubber, synthetic diamond and the plastics polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene were discovered and developed or invented in the West. Mainly based on Christianity, one sees oneself as an element of the divine and life in service of … [100] The solo piano, symphony orchestra, and the string quartet are also significant musical innovations of the West. Western culture is known for its materialism. The Church in fact built Western civilization. What is Western Culture: The universe of values, customs, practices, traditions, religious beliefs, economic system and political-social organization representative of Western Europe and Europe is known as Western culture from the west, either because they originated there, or because they were assumed as their own. The ship's chronometer, the screw propeller, the locomotive, bicycle, automobile, and airplane were all invented in the West. [61] In 1054 came the Great Schism that, following the Greek East and Latin West divide, separated Europe into religious and cultural regions present to this day. Philosophers of the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, Voltaire (1694–1778), David Hume, and Immanuel Kant. [27][28] The Catholic Church established a hospital system in Medieval Europe that vastly improved upon the Roman valetudinaria[55] and Greek healing temples. [156], After the launch of the satellite Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union in 1957, satellite transmission technology was dramatically realised, with the United States launching Telstar in 1962 linking live media broadcasts from the UK to the US. [64][65][66] However, due to the division in Western Christianity caused by the Protestant Reformation and the Enlightenment, religious influence—especially the temporal power of the Pope—began to wane.[67][68]. [96], According to new polls about religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for 72% of the EU population. [42] Appiah argues that the origin of the Western and European identity can be traced back to the Muslim invasion of Iberia where Christians would form a common Christian or European identity. [116] The electrical motor, dynamo, transformer, electric light, and most of the familiar electrical appliances, were inventions of the West. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1989. Realistic portraiture is especially valued. [60] This period is commonly referred to as the Renaissance. For example, Western culture includes countries in Northern America, such as Canada and the United States, or Australasia, such as Australia and New Zealand, whose language and demographic ethnicity majorities are of European descent without indigenous influence. Dance forms. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. [6] The concept of a "West" dates back to the Roman Empire, where there was a cultural divide between the Greek East and Latin West, a divide that later continued in Medieval Europe between the Catholic Latin Church west and the "Greek" Eastern Orthodox east. Westernization definition, the process of adopting, or of influencing others to adopt, ideas and practices characteristic of Europe and North America:Once preferred by most women in India, the sari became less popular due to westernization, with young women now preferring other attire such as skirts or pants. The cultural definition of the Western world. The westerns are more open and forthright. In physics, the science of mechanics and quantum mechanics, relativity, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics were all developed by Westerners. In music, Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern Western musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church,[98] and an enormous body of religious music has been composed for it through the ages. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. The expansion of Greek culture into the Hellenistic world of the eastern Mediterranean led to a synthesis between Greek and Near-Eastern cultures,[2] and major advances in literature, engineering, and science, and provided the culture for the expansion of early Christianity and the Greek New Testament. Many parts of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empireare considered Western today but were considered Eastern in the past. That the earliest writers explained it … The roots of the Western culture has its origins in Europe and carries a heritage of Germanic, Celtic, Hellenic, Slavic, Jewish, Latin, and other ethnic and linguistic groups. Eventually, the empire became increasingly split into a Western and Eastern part, reviving old ideas of a contrast between an advanced East, and a rugged West. The Age of Discovery faded into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, during which cultural and intellectual forces in European society emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority. Bullfighting spread from Spain to its American colonies, and in the 19th century to France, where it developed into a distinctive form in its own right. [113] The percentage of ethnically European Nobel prize winners during the first and second halves of the 20th century were respectively 98 and 94 percent. 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