Students in Ghana in a parade for inclusive education Inclusion in education refers to a model wherein students with special needs spend most or all of their time … Ghana’s Inclusive Education (IE) Policy transcends the idea of physical location and incorporates basic values that promote participation, friendship, and interaction. Progress has also been made on access to secondary education. A Legal History of Inclusion. Partial Inclusion 2. Education for All by 2015. The lack of support from principals in the schools (Kuyini & Desai, 2006, 2009) draws attention to the type of attitudes these principals had toward the inclusion of students with special needs into regular schools. Anthony (2011), allude to the idea that positive attitudes about the inclusion of students with disabilities into mainstream classes are often dependent on the provision of adequate support services. Finally, the study is also hoped to contribute to national and international debates on Inclusive Education growing global literature on educators’ attitudes toward inclusive education and the specific factors / educator variables that impact on these attitudes and the implementation of effective inclusive practices. Further, the contextual realities of regular education schools including notably principals’ expectations (Kuyini & Desai, 2007; Sodak& Podell, 1994), shape the school cultures or climates for successful inclusion. A teacher added; “we had only a semester (one course) training in special education the fully trained special needs education teachers are sent to special schools. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 369-388. Further, the study is hoped to make a significant contribution to an understanding of inclusive education practices in Ghanaian schools by identifying what needs to be done to ensure effective implementation of Inclusive Education. The three studies found challenges in relation to teacher attitudes, knowledge and skills, as well as the schools’ organization of inclusive programs. An important dimension with regard to the findings on attitudes was that the principals and teachers in Ghana were more positive towards the inclusion of students with social disabilities than any other type of disability (See Table 3). This study set out to examine teachers` implementation of Inclusive Education in Ghanaian primary schools taking into consideration teachers` attitudes toward inclusion of disabled students in regular classroom. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 12, 97-113. The utility of Allport’s conditions of intergroup contact for predicting perceptions of improved racial attitudes and beliefs. models of inclusive education: where do comunity based support programmes fit in? However, Allport (1954) concluded that there is no formula to establish successful contact. Research shows that adolescent girls are usually unable to get an education due to factors such as poverty, gender inequality and long distances from school. Accra: Ghana Publishing Corporation. The extension of The Theory of Reasoned Action (Theory of planned behavior) introduced a third element, the element of perceived behavioral control. (1954). Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. Stanovich, P.J. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. & Wrightsman, S.L. (June 3, 2008) -Inclusive education project, University of Education, Winneba. Favazza, P.C. These findings are consistent with research studies which point to a generally positive view held by teachers in mainstream settings regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. There are challenges in the implementation of inclusive education in Ghana (Agbenyega & Deku 2011; Anthony, 2009; Kuyini & Desai, 2007, 2008). Wesley J. J (2010) Qualitative Document Analysis in Political Science. 3. To examine variables of educators` attitudes toward Inclusion. UNESCO, 2007. Pettigrew (2011) sees the school as a socialisation system and teaching and learning as a socialisation process without which learning may be hampered. Inclusive Education Education is the most effective way to break the cycle of discrimination and poverty that children with disabilities and their families often go through. Ntombela, S. (2009) Are we there yet? Welch, M. (1989). The above utterances by a teacher interviewed is a concern showing lack of consultation with teachers, thus supporting previous studies such as (Cook, et al. Changes at policy level and support facilities for special needs students as an explicit concern are needed to achieve this equalization. The variables selected for the study, (inclusive education practices, educators’ attitudes toward including students with disabilities, educators' knowledge of inclusive education practices, and principals’ expectations) when seen in the context of Ajzen’s (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior and Allport`s (1954) Intergroup Contact Theory, collectively represent the determinants of behaviors. As one of the teachers put; How can we teach a child with language problems? Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 291-299. Models of inclusive education 1. Reconciling context and contact effects on racial attitudes. Vaughn, S., Kim, A-H., Sloan, C.V.M., Hughes, M. T., Elbaum, B. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008. In Ghana, we have had about six initiatives/models of implementation of Inclusive Education. Remedial and Special Education, 24 (1), 2-15. Teachers in the study view inclusive education as difficult, most of them agree that students with disabilities are placed into mainstream schools. Turner, R.N., Hewstone, M., & Voci, A. Full Inclusion Students with moderate to severe … The female teacher with no special education training and no experience teaching students with disabilities taught in a large class. And are teachers implementing inclusion in any meaningful way to foster academic and social inclusion? Social psychology in the 90’s. The results showed that teachers are more positive to include students with minor mobility problems, verbal aggression as well as shy and withdrawn students than visual and hearing impairment and those with speech problems. Two set of questions, one to the teachers and one to the students were used to collect data. Ghana ’ s special and inclusive Education and the Theory of planned behavior and knowledge ( Ajzen 1985. 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